Many religious people would take the position taken by Eileen’s mother, that the operation itself and the possibility of the operation was an expression of God’s will. 1. 5. In addition to websites which may be linked in the Guide and selected film reviews listed on the Movie Review Query Engine, the following resources were consulted in the preparation of this Learning Guide: FICTION (SOAPS, DRAMAS, AND REALITY/SURVIVAL SHOW), Announcement by Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Partners of the Heart Comprehension Test/Homework Assignment, Discussion Questions Relating to Ethical Issues, Web-Based Exhibit on the Blue Baby Operations, Hopkins pioneered ‘blue baby’ surgery 50 years ago from the Johns Hopkins Gazette. Vivien Thomas fully participated in developing the blue baby operations, but he was not given credit for his contribution nor was he acknowledged to be a leading instructor of surgery for more than three decades. Charles Manlove Irene Ziegler. She needs a new ductus for them to oxygenate their blood. Open heart surgery includes surgery on the blood vessels leading to and from the heart. Banks, having invested their depositors’ money in businesses that went under or in real estate that had depreciated in value, became insolvent and simply shut their doors. Another (so far as we can tell) fictional scene is the final scene with Dr. Blalock. True caring, like true friendship, would have resulted in Dr. Blalock giving Mr. Thomas credit for his efforts in the blue baby operations. What role did racism play in the fact that Dr. Blalock was able to keep Vivien Thomas as a lab assistant for so many decades and benefit from Thomas’ work without giving him credit? That Thomas was talented and that he was someone Dr. Blalock could train to be a good lab technician. SUBJECTS — Medicine; U.S./1917 – 1991, Diversity, Tennessee & Maryland; SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL LEARNING — Teamwork; Education; Friendship; AGE: Age: 10+; MPAA Rating — PG; Drama; 2004; 135 minutes; Color. At Vanderbilt, Dr. Blalock focused his research on the cause of traumatic shock. The incident in the film that has him quitting, selling pharmaceuticals, and then having to ask to be rehired is a way to dramatize the importance to him of the work and the fact that he was underpaid. Mother of pediatric cardiology. To recreate heart defects and to develop surgical treatments for those defects. She chose pediatric cardiology as her specialty. This required, he argued, that people on occasion put their futures on the line. Each movie has its strengths. Dr. Blalock did not pay Thomas a salary commensurate with his work. By working at the cutting edge of medical research, becoming an expert in surgery, and inventing new surgical techniques, Vivien Thomas demonstrated that blacks could perform surgery and conduct scientific research as well as any white man. That doesn’t happen at the present time because the federal government insures deposits in banks up to a certain level. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (where Taussig eventually studied) had only begun admitting women in 1893 after an amazing act of “girl power” (a century before the formation of the Spice Girls and their adopting of this slogan). Dr. Walter Dandy David Bailey. See, “Has the time come to rename the Blalock-Taussig shunt?” by Brogan, Thomas V. MD; Alfieris, George M. MD, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. What was the most important way in which Dr. Blalock failed to treat Mr. Thomas as a friend? Birthplace: Cambridge, MA Location of death: Kennett Square, PA Cause of death: Accident - Automobi. Helen Brooke Taussig (May 24, 1898 – May 20, 1986) was an American cardiologist, working in Baltimore and Boston, who founded the field of pediatric cardiology. * Diane Varsi - Movie Actress * Charley - Steinbeck's Poodle * Dr. Helen Taussig MD- Heart Researcher * Dr. Alfred Blalock MD- Heart Surgeon * Dr. Vivien Thomas PhD- Medical Researcher * Paul Iams - Businessman (Pet food) * 6 Bishops of the Diocese of Camden - Bishop Bartholomew Eustace - Archbishop Celestine Damiano - Bishop Justin McCarthy 3. Not having children of her own, Taussig saved thousands of babies from death or deformity. A good answer will note the broad impact of the contributions of both men. Finally, standing on a step stool and looking over Dr. Blalock’s shoulder, Mr. Thomas supervised the first 25 – 35 operations that Blalock performed on human beings. Dr. Thomas’ autobiography, Partners of the Heart was published a few days after his death. He was right. The title “Something the Lord Made” came from a statement made by Dr. Blalock. The message of the movie on this topic is so obvious it doesn’t need any explication. Dr. Blalock soon realized that this young black man could be much more than a mere janitor. In the Blalock/Thomas team effort, did one of the team members benefit more than the other? 13. One of the main components of caring is to nurture another individual. HELEN B. TAUSSIG, M.D. Featured Actors: Narrated by Morgan Freeman. Dr. Blalock trained Vivien Thomas in medical research and surgery and soon the youth became Blalock’s chief research assistant. Mary Thomas Cora Shay Buck. Bank Officer Henri Edmonds. Young Olga Thomas John Leslie Wolfe. C S Lewis once said, “Hardships often prepare ordinary people for an extraordinary destiny”. But even if Mr. Thomas had not gone to college or medical school because he had a responsibility to take care of his family, it was Dr. Blalock’s responsibility to encourage Mr. Thomas and use his best efforts to make it easier for Mr. Thomas to go to school by offering to help Mr. Thomas get a scholarship and financial aid. Helen B. Taussig was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Dr. Taussig was an early female graduate from Johns Hopkins Medical School. Dr. Blalock promised that it would never happen again, and it didn’t. Helen Brooke Taussig was an American physician, cardiologist, educator and author recognized as the founder of pediatric cardiology, best known for her contributions to the development of the first successful treatment of “blue baby” syndrome. The comment by Dr. Blalock that Mr. Thomas’ surgery was like something the Lord made, occurred when the doctor did an autopsy on a dog whose heart had been altered by Vivien Thomas to mimic a congenital defect that they were studying. Apparently, this is realistic. He retired in 1979 and was awarded emeritus status. When Dr. Blalock was offered the post of chief surgeon at Johns Hopkins Medical School in 1941, he insisted that a job be offered to his research assistant as well. Today almost all banks have Federal deposit insurance which protects deposits up to the amount of $100,000. Have students reproduce one of the illustrations or drawings of the operation linked in the adjacent Photographs, Diagrams and Other Visuals section of this Guide, describing the purpose of each incision and medical device shown. The same is true of Dr. Blalock’s failure to give Mr. Thomas credit for his contribution to Dr. Blalock’s discoveries. He surgically created in dogs the heart malformations that caused the blue baby syndrome. 20. See Question # 10 in the Comprehension Test/Homework Assignment. In the laboratory, Vivien Thomas was always treated as an individual and with respect. Selected Awards: 2004 Emmy Awards: Outstanding Made for Television Movie; Outstanding Cinematography for a Miniseries or Movie; Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special; Directors Guild of America, DGA Award: Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Movies for Television; Writers Guild of America, USA, WGA Award (TV) Best Long Form – Original; Golden Globe Awards Nominations: Best Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television; Best Performance by an Actor in a Mini-Series or a Motion Picture Made for Television (Mos Def); 2004 Emmy Awards Nominations: Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie (both Mos Def and Alan Rickman nominated); Outstanding Writing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Dramatic Special; Outstanding Directing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Dramatic Special; Outstanding Casting for a Miniseries, Movie or a Dramatic Special; Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie; Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards, Nomination: Best Picture Made for Television; Featured Actors: Alan Rickman as Alfred Blalock; Mos Def as Vivien Thomas; Mary Stuart Masterson as Dr. Helen Taussig; Kyra Sedgwick as Mary Blalock; Merritt Wever as Mrs. Saxon; Doug Olear as Michael Saxon. Shortly after an epidemic of children born with flipper-like limbs, heart defects, and other malformations broke out in Europe, a student told Dr. Taussig about a possible link between the defects and thalidomide. This web page serves as the answer key for the test/homework assignment. Some in the medical research community have asserted that the shunt should be renamed in honor of Vivien Thomas. Leaving aside the question of whether Dr. Blalock should have encouraged Mr. Thomas to attend college and become a surgeon, describe why the Blalock/Thomas team is an example of effective teamwork. She died on May 20, 1986 in Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, USA. Five young Baltimore women fundraised half a million dollars towards the construction of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, presented on the understanding that women could study there “on the same terms as men”. Helen Brooke Taussig was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 24, 1898 to Frank W. Taussig and Edith Thomas Guild, who had three other children. Dr. Blalock was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and awarded numerous honors including the Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur. 2. Can depositors in most banks in the U.S. today lose their money if the bank fails? A skilled carpenter, he planned to finance his college education with money saved from seven years of carpentry jobs. Dr. Helen Taussig Cliff McMullen. Yet, Dr. Blalock, who came from a wealthy Southern family, never paid Vivien Thomas a salary commensurate with his responsibilities or his contribution. The documentary has excellent special features. Some blacks probably thought that Thomas was acting above them and resented it. Was Dr. Blalock’s colleague correct when he worried that Blalock was rushing into the first blue baby operation because Dr. Blalock had prematurely assured the child’s parents that he knew how to perform the operation? Determined not to let this condition stand in her way, she learned to read lips and “listened with her fingers” to her patients’ hearts. In “Something the Lord Made” there are four or five occasions in which the character of Dr. Blalock used profanity. (Be kind; Be compassionate and show you care; Express gratitude; Forgive others; Help people in need). “Something the Lord Made” is a fictionalized account that accurately conveys the sense of the actual events. 25. The fact that the operation was experimental should have been (and probably was) fully disclosed to the parents when they were making their decision about whether to give their consent. Have students read and summarize at least five of the entries on HBO’s Share Your Story Page (containing remembrances and recollections of Vivien Thomas, Dr. Blalock and the experiences of many blue babies and their families); the students should then write a paragraph on which story they liked the best and why; 3. Dr. Blalock gave Vivien Thomas that opportunity. Societal norms changed drastically in the period from 1955 to 1980. Each movie has its strengths. Had Dr. Blalock fully disclosed Mr. Thomas’ role in the 1930s and 1940s and insisted that Mr. Thomas get credit for his work, both of them may have suffered. Worse still, she became profoundly deaf after qualifying as a doctor. He served there until his retirement in 1963. (Scientists usually gain recognition when their names are placed on published papers that describe their research.) It was not charting new ground for Vivien Thomas to dream of becoming a doctor. No questions. What is meant by that? Her work in the clinic gave Dr. Taussig the opportunity to see hundreds of blue babies, children who had deformities of the heart that prevented much of their blood from reaching their lungs. Man at park Harold J. Abell Sr. Man #1 Michael E. Russell. Additional questions are set out below. During the mid-20th century, Dr. Blalock was the only medical researcher to give this much opportunity and responsibility to a black man with high school education. Based on his findings Dr. Blalock urged wider use of plasma or whole-blood transfusions to improve treatment for surgical shock. Was it Mr. Thomas’ obligation to support his family or Dr. Blalock’s need for him in the laboratory or was it something else that prevented Mr. Thomas from returning to college and then going to medical school? 19. Who do you agree with? In 1944, in association with Dr. Helen Taussig, they designed and carried out the first blue baby operations. 122 & 123. White people at Johns Hopkins were unused to a black man taking on such a role and they felt insecure when Mr. Thomas appeared in a white lab coat. (Dr. Blalock retired in 1963 and died in 1964.) They worked together at Johns Hopkins from 1940 until Dr. Blalock’s retirement in 1963. After Dr. Blalock and Dr. Taussig took full credit for the operation and didn’t given Mr. Thomas any credit, the character of Vivien Thomas in the movie says to Blalock: “I’m invisible to the world. Dr. Taussig suggested various operations to improve circulation to the lungs. AN EXAMPLE OF THE INTERPLAY OF ALTRUISM AND SELF-INTEREST IN RACE RELATIONS: From 1930, when Vivien Thomas first applied to Dr. Blalock for a job as a janitor, until well into the 1950s, black people in the South were not permitted to use their creativity to contribute to scientific research. This allowed Dr. Blalock to take the risk of doing harm to his patient and still act in an ethical manner. He did not give Thomas credit for his work in the scientific community. In the 2004 HBO movie Something the Lord Made, Dr. Taussig was portrayed by Mary Stuart Masterson. Vivien Thomas’ leading role in the groundbreaking blue baby operations was not publicly acknowledged by Dr. Blalock or by Johns Hopkins for decades. Open heart surgery is any surgery in which the chest wall is opened to reveal the heart. Was the priest right that Dr. Blalock was arrogant and vain? He discovered that people went into shock due to loss of blood or other fluids. 19. The father pointed out that Harold, the grandson of a man born into slavery, had a college education. The only regrets that relate to the film would be due to Dr. Blalock’s failure to encourage and help Mr. Thomas to become a surgeon. One of the most important ethical obligations for a doctor is to make sure that his or her treatments do no harm. When looking at lists of women pioneers of the last century, Helen Taussig’s name is usually missing. Given an honorary doctor of laws (Johns Hopkins did not give honorary doctorates in medicine), he became an instructor of surgery at Johns Hopkins Medical School. In 1941, Dr. Blalock returned to Johns Hopkins as surgeon-in-chief at its hospital and director of the surgery department at the medical school. From 1930 to 1963, Helen Taussig and her colleges worked in the Harriet Lane Home to develop the blue baby operation. The term “open” refers to the chest, not to the heart itself. After graduation from medical school, Dr. Taussig had to contend with the loss of her hearing. In 1954, Blalock received the Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award "For distinguished contributions to cardiovascular surgery and knowledge" jointly with Helen Taussig and Robert Gross. 18. The success of this operation demonstrated that surgery on the heart was possible. Mr. Thomas was so talented and knowledgeable that at Johns Hopkins he was asked to train young doctors in the techniques of surgery. Helen Brooke Taussig lived from 1898 to 1986 in a male-dominated medical world. Viewing the young man as a person, rather than as just another black janitor, Dr. Blalock encouraged him to develop his skills as a scientist and as a surgeon. 11. Vivien Thomas came to work for Dr. Blaylock as a janitor at Vanderbilt, and it was there that Dr. Blaylock trained Vivien Thomas in scientific research and surgery. Another example of this problem is shown in Hidden Figures. These films describe the unique and productive association between Vivien Thomas, a black high school graduate, and his white mentor and employer, Dr. Alfred Blalock. In 1959, he and Taussig jointly received Gairdner Foundation Award (Toronto) totaling $25,000. When Dr. Blalock observed the results of the operation during an autopsy of the dog, he said, “Vivien, this is like something the Lord made.”. The following two Questions About Friendship that should be asked together: 3. For more than 30 years, the two men pursued a variety of medical research projects. Blalock, Taussig and Thomas, no one had demonstrated that major surgery on the blood vessels of the heart was possible. 4. Johns Hopkins University named the "Helen B. Taussig Children's Pediatric Cardiac Center" in her honor, and in 2005 the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine named one of its four colleges in her honor. Blalock and Taussig by which blue babies are temporarily given increased blood flow to the lungs so that they can live long enough for additional surgery to more permanently correct the function of their hearts is called the Blalock-Taussig Shunt. These children were exhausted by any activity and many could not walk. No one knows the answer to the first part of this question. It is not fair to judge what Dr. Blalock did between 1930 – 1965 based on how blacks were treated after 1965. One of the conditions that Dr. Blalock set when he accepted employment at Johns Hopkins was that a position be created for his lab technician and research assistant, Vivien Thomas. The students conduct experiments under the direction of a medical school faculty member, learning the process and methodology of scientific research. Possible Problems It is said that Vivien Thomas opened new paths to healing when most doors were closed to him. The procedure pioneered by Drs. It contains sections on Nashville and its black community absent from the fictionalized version. 16. Film portrayals. I understand that. 1. Parenting Points Still, Dr. Blalock did a lot for Mr. Thomas, in return for what Mr. Thomas did for him. Helen Cowan completed a PhD in cardiac pharmacology at Oxford in 2002. 9. He was 19 years of age and wanted to become a doctor. Whether life’s challenges are what led Taussig to triumph will never be known, but she certainly taught that adversity is no barrier to success. Dr. Levi Watkins, one of the first black graduates of the Johns Hopkins surgery program said this about Vivien Thomas: “I think he is the most untalked about, unappreciated, unknown giant in the African American community. There are 25 questions (at four points each) suggested for classes that have seen “Something the Lord Made” and 19 Questions (at five points each) for classes that have watched “Partners of the Heart”. Lodel Williams Luray Cooper. Medicine Dr. Taussig did extensive work on anoxemia, or blue baby syndrome, which led to the development of a pioneering cardiac surgical procedure for infants called the Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt, first performed by Taussig and Dr. Alfred Blalock on an 11-month old baby girl on … (1899-1964) Dr. Blalock earned his medical degree at Johns Hopkins in 1922. The documentary, “Partners of the Heart,” is also very interesting. She is credited with developing the concept for a procedure that would extend the lives of children born with Tetralogy of Fallot (the most common cause of blue baby syndrome). 6. (2) There was no other black person that we know of who was trained or permitted to play the important role that Mr. Thomas played in scientific research in the South during the 1930s to 1950s. The movie will air on HBO on May 30, 2004, at 9 p.m. Premiers also will be held in New York City and Los Angeles. Mr. Thomas might have had to leave his job as Dr. Blalock’s research assistant. No. Thomas helped pioneer heart surgery, when the common wisdom among doctors was that it was impossible to work on the heart. None of these inventions or inaccuracies change the important elements of the story and all serve to advance the plot or highlight the lessons to be learned from the real story. It was her only chance. 1. The right answer is that even if injustice will be corrected gradually, in most cases, people must compel a change to occur or it will never happen or it will happen too slowly. The residents of Nashville’s black middle-class enclave created a world of their own. To me, Taussig is a true inspiration. Help a Good Cause Every Time You Play Lottery Games Online. Discussion Questions Relating to Ethical Issues will facilitate the use of this film to teach ethical principles and critical viewing. Her mother died when she was 11; Taussig was also severely dyslexic, describing reading as “pure torture”, like “running an obstacle course”. Judging the new janitor by his abilities, rather than by the color of his skin, Dr. Blalock found that his employee showed immense talent as both a scientist and as a surgeon. The story behind the surgery was the subject of the 2004 HBO movie Something the Lord Made, filmed at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. This was another advance in the demonstration that blacks were not, in any way, genetically inferior to whites. The depositors could not get their money. Afterwards, Thomas trained young doctors at Johns Hopkins Medical School in methods of heart surgery. In addition, Thomas was treated with respect in many other ways. Helen Taussig. This enabled Mr. Thomas (later Dr. Thomas) to contribute to society and to partially fulfill his potential. On November 19, 1944, as the Second World War raged in Europe, and after years of preparatory work performed primarily by Vivien Thomas, Dr. Blalock operated on a baby near death from blue baby syndrome. The party scenes have been transformed from a birthday party for Dr. Blalock to which Mr. Thomas was not invited to a dinner celebrating the blue baby operations. Their names are placed on the papers that describe their research. However, both were essential and important. Mr. Thomas and Dr. Blalock worked together at Vanderbilt University from 1930 to 1940. Helen Cowan completed a PhD in cardiac pharmacology at Oxford in 2002. White lab workers and doctors behind the surgery was the most productive partnerships in the dreary of. 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